Intensive Poultry Units

A major threat to Herefordshire’s countryside today is the rapid growth in the intensive livestock industry, which is generating a wave of vast industrial complexes across the rural landscape.

Shocking as it is to see these giant steel sheds in the countryside, their visual impact is not the only concern: like many other industrial operations, intensive livestock units produce many undesirable impacts, which in any other industry would be confined to a brownfield site.

Our sister organisation CPRE Shropshire has prepared maps to show the density of planning applications for IPUs in Shropshire, Herefordshire and Powys.  The upper one shows the number of applications, the lower gives relative sizes as well.  Please click on the images to access the files.


Industrial Or Farming?

The Environment Agency categorises intensive livestock units as industrial installations and the planning system recognises their huge potential impacts on the environment: an intensive poultry development to house more than 85,000 birds falls under Schedule One of the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 2011, the same category as a new airport or a nuclear power plant.*

But there is an anomaly in the planning system: because intensive livestock units are considered to be farm diversification, there is a presumption that they should be located in the countryside.

Planning And IPUs

Planning applications for intensive livestock developments will address the most significant impacts - traffic, noise, odour, dust, and so on - but because the principle that such development is allowed in rural areas is already established, planning authorities are obliged to agree ways of reducing the harm and can only refuse planning permission if it would not be possible to mitigate the harm to the landscape and environment. Mitigate does not mean prevent or avoid, it means reduce to an unspecified degree.

As a consequence, to comment adequately demands a considerable amount of time, often requiring research of comparable applications and decisions. An objection needs to be related to current local and or national planning policies. 


Density In Herefordshire

Herefordshire already has one of the highest densities of intensive poultry units of any county - with more than 1,000 birds per square km (source: Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board) - and the council has received planning applications for more (see CPRE Shropshire's 2019 maps of planning applications in the Marches area and by size of unit).

In Herefordshire’s case, the industry is driven by the presence of the US conglomerate Cargill, which has a processing plant in Hereford and a feed mill in Allensmore. Farmers erect and manage the buildings themselves, meaning that Cargill itself does not have to invest in land or buildings, although it employs the drivers and workers who catch the grown birds by their thousands at night.

Increased Traffic From IPUs

The broiler industry adds very large vehicle movements (one 4-shed development can generate up to 3,000 HGV movements) on to Herefordshire’s roads every year: the eggs are laid on one farm and then delivered to a hatchery in another part of the county, day old chicks are delivered to the broiler units on farms across the region where they grow for around four weeks before being transported to Hereford for slaughter and processing. The finished products are then delivered to their final destination, which may be abroad.

Cargill also owns a hatchery at Shobdon in the north of Herefordshire and a feed mill at Allensmore in the south of the county, which provides the feed to broiler units across the west midlands region. The broiler diet is predominantly soy, which is imported from plantations owned by Cargill in South America.

But it is the taxpayer who pays for the highway improvements and maintenance needed to support all this traffic. Farmers do not pay business rates on intensive livestock buildings.

Waste And Water Courses

HCPRE is also very concerned about the hundreds of thousands of tonnes of waste produced by poultry units in Herefordshire and surrounding counties. Much of this is spread on fields as fertiliser with the risk that nutrients and toxins get into the rivers, causing pollution. The growth in the industry has coincided with a rise in phosphate levels in the River Wye Special Area of Conservation and the River Lugg, a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Poultry litter contains more phosphorus than any other farm manure as well as arsenic and other residues.

Mapping phosphate levels in Herefordshire - commissioned by HCPRE

The intensity of the production process increases every year as the industry produces birds that reach “maturity” ever more quickly. The broiler industry is predicting that by 2020, chickens will reach “table-weight” just 19 days from hatching. This can only increase the amounts of manure produced.

More on water quality and phosphate levels

The Future

HCPRE is campaigning for a change in planning policy to recognise that intensive livestock units are industrial development, with impacts as harmful as other large industries, and that they should be located on brownfield land with good transport connections, away from people’s homes and on sites where the landscape would not be harmed. Basically, not in the open countryside.

We would like the industry to re-think its model and operate more sustainably by locating all the different processes - egg-laying, hatching, growing, feed production and so on - if not in a single location, at least in close proximity to one another.


If you become aware of an application in the area and require HCPRE advice, please give us as much notice as possible to allow the production of a suitable objection.

*An average broiler units houses 45,000 to 50,000 birds and most planning applications are for four or more units so most intensive poultry units fall under Schedule One, as does any pig unit that houses more than 3,000 pigs for fattening.

Update Aug 31st 2018

- following Avara's announcement to farmers that it needs no more new production in Herefordshire

Herefordshire CPRE welcomes the news that Avara (ex Cargill meats) do not  need any more poultry producers in Herefordshire. We recognise that the news is of no comfort to the many residents who have to live now within sight, sound and smell of the large intensive chicken meat production units; nor will it be welcome news for Northamptonshire rural communities.

HCPRE has objected formally to applications for these large developments on the grounds that they degrade the landscape and previously tranquil environments with noxious smells, considerable amounts of dust containing dubious aerosols, noise from a large increase in HGV movements day and night, often in narrow lanes, and problems from large quantities of manure.  Arsenic and high levels of phosphates in the manure that is used as a fertiliser enter the soil and subsequently the local water courses. It might be coincidence, but it is established that the increased levels of phosphates in the Lugg and the Wye recently has occurred concurrently with the increased density of broiler developments. Phosphates kill both vegetation and animal life.

Large Broiler developments (two or more sheds housing more than 85,000 birds) are categorised in Environmental Regulations as equivalent to crude oil refineries, nuclear fuel processing plants and chemical installations. And yet, they are deemed to be agricultural projects, allowed to be built in open countryside in locations where no comparable sized industrial activity would be permitted. Furthermore, in Herefordshire they are not charged business rates or development tariffs, thus being subsidised by the Council tax payers who suffer from their activities.

Applicants make the argument repeatedly that there is economic benefit to the County. We are not aware of any published adequate cost/benefit analysis  to substantiate this. We are aware however that they do not attract tourists, employ very few people, and cannot possibly be deemed to meet the criteria of sustainable developments.

HCPRE has proposed that broiler installations should be located on brownfield land, and away from people’s homes. Herefordshire’s previous Local Plan, the UDP, contained a Policy that required Intensive Livestock Units to be sited at least 400m from ‘sensitive receptors’ e.g. people’s homes, but is completely absent from the present Plan, the Core Strategy. If another processing company were to come to the County, we propose that the Council introduces tighter controlling policies on any new broiler installations.